Before the Majapahit empire was in Bali (1343 AD), a large kingdom had been established called Dalem Balingkang.
At that time, Bali had been influenced a lot by Hinduism from India. In line with the development of Buddhism in India, this faith then spread to other mainland of Asia, especially developed rapidly in China. Bali which has good relations with China was finally affected by Buddhism.
That is why there are two large Shiva-Buddhist temples in Bali, namely Batur Temple and Besakih Temple. So, the faith of Shiva-Buddha in Bali had existed before the faith of Shiva-Buddha Majapahit entered Bali, it rapidly developed during the reign of Dalem Balingkang.
The entire island (whole of Bali) and its people in the days of Old Bali were never controlled and led by less than 23 kings, and the most famous who released much epigraphs was Sri Haji Jayapangus, who was well-known later on as Dalem Balingkang.
During the reign of Dalem Balingkang, good relations were established between Bali and China, it was initially through trading then followed by agriculture. This good relationship was marked by the gift of a noble princess named Kang Cing Wie to the Balinese king Sri Haji Jayapangus as an empress with the title Paduka Çri Mahadewi Çaçangkajacihna (Her Majesty Sri MahadewiSasangkajacihna), and followed by those who began to reside in many places in Balingkang, Ping'an village (Pinggan), Pasar'ai (Serai = Market), Sia'in (Siakin), Belanding'an (Belandingan), Paketan (Paket'an = place of gambling).
The arrival of Chinese people has continued increasing since the marriage of the king of Bali with Kang Cing Wie who was immediately appointed as Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar (the chief of syahbandar or port ruler). Chinese influence also affects the naming of several places, such as: Langan Village obtained from Loan'an and Balingkang = Bali + Kang (Balinese clan from the king of Bali Jaya Pangus + clan of Kang from the princess Kang Cing Wie). With this migrant from China, it automatically brings Chinese culture and Mahayana Buddhism, and gradually integrated and acculturated, which creates Shiva-Buddhist culture as it is known today in Bali.
That is the background of Palinggih Subandar establishment in one part of the mandala in the two large temples in Bali, Batur and Besakih Temple. As a special place of worship for Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar, of course there is Dalem Balingkang Temple as the center of the kingdom, explained Jero Gede Batur Alitan (Interview, Nov 2007).
As a former of Kedatuan, Dalem Balingkang Temple has various types of buildings (palinggih = stana) with various functions and meanings attached to them. One type of palinggih that was mentioned earlier is palinggih Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar as a place to worship the sacred spirit of Ratu Kang Cing Wie, as a consort of the king of Bali as well as the main ancestor (kongco) of Chinese residents who resided in villages around Penulisan, Kintamani, even Bali and Indonesia in general.
For this reason, the problems examined in this paper can be formulated: 1) How is the architecture of kongco or palinggih Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar in Dalem Balingkang Temple and its symbolic meaning for the Balinese and Chinese people, and 2) What is the architectural potential of Dalem Balingkang Temple as one the main attraction for tourists in the context of developing sustainable tourism in Bali?
This problem will be discussed based on the theory of semiotic and diachronic history in order to see the development of the function and meaning of the existence of Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar in the long term. Semiotics (also called semiotic studies and in the Saussurean tradition called as semiology) is the study of the meaning of decisions.
This research uses a holistic approach which means how to look something as a whole it is. Techniques of data collection are through interviews and literature study.
This type of research is descriptive analytic which aims to obtain clearly about a particular situation or circumstance in the field through data collection, in this case specifically regarding to Dalem Balingkang and Kang Ci Wie and see the form of Palinggih Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar and Dalem Balingkang architecture in Dalem Balingkang Temple. [Prof. Anastasia Sulistyawati / to be continued]
Penulis : Ni Luh Putu Era Adnyayanti
Editor : I Komang Robby Patria