The problem discussed in this discussion is about the architecture and symbolic meaning of Ratu Mas Subandar pelinggih in Dalem Balingkang Temple, as well as the architectural potential of Dalem Balingkang Temple as one of the main tourist attractions in order to develop the sustainability of tourism in Bali.
Dalem Balingkang Temple (DBT) which etymologically contains the word temple can be interpreted as a palace, Dalem means King, Bali is the Island of Bali, and the word Kang means King, overall Dalem Balingkang Temple can mean the palace of the king of Bali Kuna (Mahendra, 1987: 32). The king of Bali Kuna which refers to Raja Sri Haji Jayapangus, who is also better known as Dalem Balingkang.
Based on architectural perspective, Palinggih Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar is not much different from the other traditional pelinggih in Dalem Balingkang temples. It has the same shape like gedong which consist of three parts (Tri Angga concept), namely the basis or bebaturan (feet), the part of body, top part (head) or raab (roof). Likewise, the manufacturing materials are taken from local natural materials such as: solid rock, brick, wood, and palm fibers to cover the roof.
The difference can only be seen from the color and decoration attributes that installed there which are dominated by red colors and Chinese cultural trinkets like tedung or umbrellas, mosquito nets and lanterns and there is also a hiolo as a special incense place for Chinese people.
However, the gedong existence of Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar becomes very meaningful when viewed from the perspective of the symbolic meaning of its architecture, which will be discussed in this paper.
The architecture of various buildings types in Dalem Balingkang Temple varies from the forms of various history periods of traditional architecture in Bali which also enrich the concept of its construction, starting from the architecture of Bali Mula and Bali Aga (X century), Bali of Mpu Kuturan Period (came to Bali in 1001 AD), Bali Majapahit Period (which conquered Bali in 1343 AD), Bali Danghyang Nirarta Period (which came to Bali in 1489 AD during the reign of Dalem Waturenggong), and Bali of the Present Era (after independence 1945 to the present).
Tin order to make it easier to find the location of Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar in Dalem Balingkang Temple, there is a signboard equipped with the symbol of pis bolong, which in Balingkang's era was called Kupang or Kepeng, located right on the northeast Madya Mandala of Dalem Balingkang Temple (Map No. 21).
Pis Bolong is used as the symbol of the identity or tetenger location of pelinggih Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar. It means that there is a belief in the devotee community regarding the important role of Ratu Kang Cing Wie in helping to facilitate the money velocity of the Balinese people, by bringing in Pis Bolong from China to Bali.
According to the most of Balinese’s and Chinese’s belief of the old generation in the past, Palinggih Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar was believed (niskala/invisible) to be place of pis bolong (kupang) production, in fulfill the needs of trading medium for Hindu-Buddha society in Bali. On the signboard of gedong Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar in Dalem Balingkang Temple, there is Uang Kepeng or Pis Bolong carved with Chinese characters/writing.
The Chinese character tells about Tian Cheng Yuan Bao, the words are as follows: Tian = day/God, Cheng = make/get, Yuan = yuan (Chinese currency); and Bao = money / wealth.
The name of this coin comes from the end of the Tang Dynasty (923-936) and during the reign of Tiancheng, it mentioned that a coin with tian cheng yuan bao means Chinese money for worship or God's property.
Pis bolong is estimated to have become a legal payment instrument during the Balingkang era in Bali, and Ratu Sri Mahadewi Sasangkajacihna (Kang Cing Wie) was assigned specifically to regulate the ports/pabean, including in bringing Uang Kepeng from China so she was given the title as Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar.
The existence of pelinggih Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar is different from Ratu Gede Subandar in Batur Temple, Kintamani and other temples in Bali. According to the allegations of archeology experts, the beginning of the circulation of Chinese money in Bali already occurred in the seventh century AD as an exchange rate (economy) or as a means of payment.
But in its later development, the ritual function (cultural values) of pis bolong stands out precisely (Widana, 1997: 246). Evidence of relics and historical stories related to the existence of pis bolong (China) is widely associated with the existence of Dalem Balingkang Temple. Supporters and worshipers of Dalem Balingkang Temple are people who are members of Gebog Satak and Gebog Domas Balingkang Groups stayed around Kintamani, Bangli to the East Buleleng and also Chinese people who stayed in the Kintamani Mountain village.
Dalem Balingkang Temple is also widely worshiped by other Chinese communities in Bali, because there is allegedly a historical political trade relationship between Bali and China in the past. Other major worshipers who come from outside of the Gebog Satak and Gebog Domas groups are residents of the Petak Village community, especially the Puri Petak family, Gianyar. This is very closely related to the history of the re-establishment of Dalem Balingkang temple, which previously only had cangapit (ancient Balinese gates) and andesite stone as a center of worship, which is estimated to be Yoni.
In accordance with architectural data in the field, based on information from I Nengah Kandi, as one of the stakeholders of the Dalem Balingkang Temple, in Pura Dalem Balingkang there is a gateway (exit) in the form of Cangapit, a gate from the Bali Mula period or Bali Aga with the form of building that has eight pillars and roofed by palm fibers with a roof frame and teak doors, which the doors are exactly in the middle flanked each by two plangkan (halls) on the front and back sides, as a place to guard the palace gates.
This doorway contains ornamental carving in the form of Chinese patra (a type of flower motif and leaf-shaped motifs that exist in China) and is said to be original from the past. Likewise on the roof frame (tugeh) there is a winged lion-shaped ornament (Singa Ambara Raja), which is a symbol of the descendants of Sri Kesari Warmadewa and Ugrasena (Kesari = Ugra = Lion) who became the first and second kings of Bali Kuna in Singa Mandawa kingdom, which then by Panji Sakti also used as a symbol of the city of Singaraja, which was founded by him (Paramartha, 2017: 1).
According to Pemangku Kandi (priest in Hindu), on gedong palinggih Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar, Dalem Balingkang Temple, there is a natural stone shaped like a female genitals, which is estimated to be yoni. Thus the palinggih gedong Ratu Ayu Mas Subandar symbolically functions as a symbol of the mother or pradhana of the Balinese people in general and especially of Chinese descendants in Bali, as well as a repository of symbols of the pradhana elements in Hindu-Buddhist religion.
While the one who functions as the father or purusa (pradhana couple) from the Balinese people in general and especially those of Chinese descent in Bali is Palinggih Pajenengan Bhatara Dalem Balingkang.
Both are symbols of Rwa Bhineda (two different or opposing elements but always in pairs) such as Purusa-Pradhana, Mother-Father, Pertiwi-Akasa, Jaba-Jeroan (outside-inside), sea-mountain/land, Balines newcomers – Bali Mula and Bali Aga residents (descendants of Chinese-Balinese) become one in harmonious acculturation as Balinese Hindu-Buddhist.
Traces of the history of the Ancient kings in Bali were never recorded having conflicts and broke the country. All can be united because of the wisdom of the kings, just like the case of the unification of sects in Bali by Mpu Kuturan, as the initiative of King Udayana and her empress Mahendradatta. [Prof. Anastasia Sulistyawati / to be continued]
Penulis : Ni Luh Putu Era Adnyayanti
Editor : I Komang Robby Patria